The Electric Universe
“From the smallest particle to the largest galactic formation, a web of electrical circuitry connects and unifies all of nature, organizing galaxies, energizing stars, giving birth to planets and, on our own world, controlling weather and animating biological organisms. There are no isolated islands in an electric universe".
David Talbott & Wallace Thornhill,
'Thunderbolts of the Gods'
There is great confusion in the astronomical world with major theories being contradicted as powerful new telescopes and space probes reveal many new enigmatic features that defy convention explanation. Incredibly, when astronomers wish upon a star, they wish they knew more about how and why stars explode! Yet, for over one hundred years, a few scientists have believed that the most powerful force in the Universe is electromagnetic and the more we understand about the properties of plasma, the fundamental state of matter that consists of charged particles that pervades the whole Universe, the more it looks like electricity powers the heavens. The following is a short introduction to the Electric Universe. Enjoy!
In scientific literature, many new astronomical discoveries are often described as "enigmatic", "puzzling", "unbelievable", "stunning", "surprising" or even "mind-boggling", here are a few examples.
The enigmatic Red Square nebula is one of the most beautiful objects in the universe.
(A nebula is an interstellar cloud of gas, dust and plasma where stars can both emerge and die.) Seen in the infrared, the nebula resembles a giant, glowing red box in the sky, with a bright white inner core. Astronomers believe that it represents a dying star called MWC 922, located at the system’s center, which is ejecting matter from opposite poles into space.
The Red Square ranks among the most symmetrical objects ever observed by scientists.
“If you fold things across the principle diagonal axis, you get an almost perfect reflection symmetry,” said study leader Peter Tuthill from the University of Sydney in Australia. “This makes the Red Square nebula the most symmetrical object of comparable complexity ever imaged.” Interestingly, The Red Square Nebula probably shows basic octahedron geometry. source
MWC 922: The Red Square Nebula.
This image combines data from the Mt Palomar Hale telescope and the Keck-2 telescope. It was taken in near-infrared light (1.6 microns) and shows a region 30.8 arcseconds on a side around MWC 922. As the outer periphery of the nebula is very faint compared to the core, the image has been processed and sharpened to display the detail and structure. Credit: Peter Tuthill (Sydney U.) and James Lloyd (Cornell). Click for larger image
Electric Currents in Space Explained.
An electric current in space plasma is generally known as a Birkeland current,
after the Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland
who in 1903, first suggested their existence. Birkeland is the founder of experimental astrophysics and the grandfather of plasma physics who is famed for his experiments and expeditions into the Arctic Circle to study the aurora . More specifically, a Birkeland current exists when charged particles in the current follow magnetic field lines. Thus, they are sometimes referred to as field-aligned currents. Birkeland currents often show filamentary, or twisted "rope-like" magnetic structure
and this filamentary structure results from the self-constricting magnetic field lines and current paths that may develop in a plasma. Sometimes those twisted shapes are visible and sometimes not - it depends on the strength of the current density being carried by the plasma. Birkeland currents act as powerlines in space.
An international group of astrophysicists used a computer simulation to recreate how the universe grew and and evolved. The simulation image adjacent is a snatchshot of the present universe that features a large cluster of galaxies (bright yellow) surrounded by thousands of stars, galaxies and dark matter (web).
The Cosmic Web
This large-scale structure in the universe, known as the cosmic web reveal galaxies lie along filaments of matter like pearls on a string, and galaxy clusters arise where filaments meet.
Credit: Virgo Consortium for Cosmological Supercomputer
Electric Currents In Space Generate Electric Galaxies!
Some believe that the Universe made up of plasma may be eternal and infinite.
Known as the "Fourth State of Matter", a plasma is a substance in which many of the atoms or molecules are effectively ionized
, allowing charges to flow freely. Since 99.999% of the known universe is in the plasma state, plasmas should really be considred the First State of Matter, the basic primordial substance of the Universe.
Studies reveal that plasmas have unique physics compared to solids, liquids, and gases, but unfortunately they are routinely treated as extremely hot gases and this is often incorrect. Examples of plasmas include the sun, fluorescent light bulbs and other gas-discharge tubes, very hot flames, much of interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space, the earth's ionosphere, parts of the atmosphere around lightning discharges, laser-produced plasmas and plasmas produced for magnetic confinement fusion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s “Plasma Dictionary” plasma
Computer simulations can trace the development of spiral galaxies over time as two globs of plasma interact and form a pair of filments that eventually produce the entire range of galaxy types.
Since 99.999 percent of the visible universe is in the form of plasma, these charged particles respond to the laws of electromagnetism and because of their small size, more specifically their charge to mass ratio, their low density in space means that gravity and Newton’s laws have very little influence on describing their behaviour.
The adjacent images from a supercomputer simulation trace the development of spiral structure in two interacting plasma blobs over a span of nearly 1 billion years.
At the start of the interaction at upper left the filaments are 260,000 light-years apart; all 10 panels are reproduced at the same scale. Simulations such as this can reproduce the full range of observed spiral galaxy types using electromagnetic processes rather than gravitational ones. — Credit: A. Peratt, Plasma Cosmology, 1992. The sequence is animated here
Incredibly, when plasma physics reveals the interaction of energy pairs, the familiar Ying Yang symbol from Chinese philosophy, appears. This symbology is used to describe how seemingly disjunct or opposing forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world, giving rise to each other in turn. —Credit: A. Peratt, Plasma Cosmology, 1992.
Click for larger image
Grand Desgin Spiral Galaxy M81
Object Name: NGC 3031 Object Name: Bode's Galaxy
Image of plasma filaments making up the arms of spiral galaxy M81 with Peratt’s experimental galaxy formation sequence from plasma beneath for comparison.
An Electric Galaxy
Art Hoag discovered the galaxy that bears his name in 1950. This image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and captures a face-on view of the galaxy's ring of "young" blue stars is most notable as is the dense core and the hovering swarm of globular clusters that lie in the center of the formation. The entire galaxy is about 120,000 light-years wide, which is slightly larger than our Milky Way Galaxy.
Astronomers believe that ring-shaped galaxies can form in several different ways and one possible scenario is through a collision with another galaxy. Even though this is pure speculation, the thinking is that sometimes as the second galaxy speeds through the first, it will leaving a 'splash' of star formation. Here, in Hoag's Object, there is no sign of the second galaxy, which leads some to suspect that the blue ring of stars may be the shredded remains of a galaxy that passed nearby and so the reasoning is that any encounter must hve occurred about 2 to 3 billion years ago.
Of course there is an alternative explanation that can be demonstrated in the laboratory and with computer simulations and does not require guesswork. The Electric Universe and the plasma cosmology model of galaxy formation only requires a magnetic pinch at the intersection of cosmic Birkeland current filaments.
Hoag’s object simply
shows the detailed features of the ‘penumbra’ of a plasma focus discharge.
Is Hoag’s Object a Dense Plasma Focus?
An unusual galaxy known as Hoag's Object
that demonstrates a nearly perfect ring of hot, blue stars pinwheeling around its central yellow nucleus. — Image Credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)
Penumbra of a dense plasma focus from a discharge current of 174,000 amperes. The rotational structure of the penumbra has a periodicity of 56 as shown by the 56-dot overlay pattern. —Credit A. Peratt.
The Formation of Stars
The Hubble telescope has revealed one of the most unusually long planetary nebulae found so far.Nebulas The "Shocking" Answers.
Scientists think planetary nebulae hold the key to understanding how the Universe became enriched with heavier elements so they study them intensively. Yet, it is not well-understood by astronomers how a perfectly round star can turn into such an unusual-looking nebula that looks like a neon light.
The answer is simple, but it requires understanding that electrical discharges in plasma will generate a tube-like sheath along its axis
. A sufficiently energetic discharge will cause the sheath to glow, and it may generate several embedded sheaths. The sheath is actually a "double layer"
, a thin sheet in which positive charges build up on one side and negative charges build up on the other. Therefore, a strong electrical field exists between the sides and an electrical current flows along these sheaths. As some of the charges accelerate they emit microwave (and often optical and x-ray) radiation, but often this is undetectable unless a probe flies through it.
Because the light is produced by electrical discharge, the relevant model for a nebula is a laboratory "gas-discharge tube", similar to a neon light,
which emits light only at the excitation frequency of the gas. The Astronomers' model of a shock wave from an explosion predicts emitted light at many frequencies due to heating of the gas. But over 90% of the light from planetary nebulas comes in a single frequency: that of doubly ionized oxygen. Hence we can think of the Henize Nebula as a light-year-long oxygen discharge tube.
In an Electric Universe, stars form in “kinks” in a discharge channel.
Where the channel bends, matter tends to accumulate. It forms a spinning sphere in which external electromagnetic “pinch” forces are balanced by internal pressure from the increasing density of plasma.
However, if the electrical stress on the central star (which acts as an electrode) becomes too great, it will fission into two or more bodies, thereby increasing the surface area of the electrode so that it can accept a greater current load. This likely explains why most if not all central stars in planetary nebulas are double. For a more detailed explanation, see
Henize 3-401: An Elongated Planetary Nebula.
The image shows two very long cylindrical outflows with intricate thread-like structures and tattered ends. We are seeing the central star responsible for the beautiful display for the first time in this image. Henize 3-401 is located in the constellation of Carina (the Keel) at an approximate distance of 10 000 light-years.
Credit: European Space Agency and Pedro Garcma-Lario (ESA ISO Data Centre)
Every electric current is associated with a surrounding magnetic field. This magnetic field, like all magnetic fields, is quite susceptible to instabilities. When this happens, there is a pinching effect on the plasma filament, as shown below: There are several types of pinches, two of which are shown above. In the top figure, where this pinch happens, the material in the pinch is compressed into a ball, and stars form. It’s as simple as that. The star at the center of the pinch can be clearly seen in the nebulae images above and below.
The Ant planetary nebula (Menzel 3 or Mz 3). STScI-PRC2001-05
NASA, ESA & the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Sahai (Jet Propulsion Lab), B. Balick (University of Washington
Wishing on a star:
Cosmologists, astrophysicists and astronomers provide "text book" answers but often they don't really know if they are right!
In contrast to the confident approach of the Electric Theory we find conventional astronomers publicly admitting their concerns. "We put the theory in the textbooks because it sounds right. But we don't really know it's right, and I think people are beginning to worry,"
says Robert Kirshner, a supernova researcher at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. "We keep saying the same thing, but the evidence for it doesn't get better, and that's a bad sign." Kirshner was among more than 100 experts on stars and their explosions who gathered to discuss their worries last month at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. General agreement emerged that the textbook story "is a little bit of 'the emperor has no clothes,'"
as Lars Bildsten, an astrophysicist at the Kavli Institute, put it.
"There's a lot of holes in the story." "I wouldn't say it's a crisis,"
[Kirschner] said. "But if you ask, 'Are the pieces falling into place?' I'd say the answer is no." Understanding type Ia supernovae has become an urgent issue in cosmology, as they provide the most compelling evidence that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate." Science 13 April 2007: Vol. 316. no. 5822, pp. 194 - 195 Paper source
HST image of Type Ia supernovae SN 1994D in NGC 4526
Supernovae are exploding stars. These stellar explosions are responsible for creating all the elements heavier than iron and for distributing the elements synthesized throughout the star's lifetime to the interstellar medium. Learn more...
If the Electric Universe theory is correct then we have to concede the fact that it's possible that massive electric currents in space can effect us on Earth.
The Electric Earth
Auroras — sometimes called Northern Lights — are fluctuating light manifestations mostly seen in the sky in the extreme northern and southern latitudes. These scintillating lights can take the form of diffuse patches or dancing streamers, bouncing arcs, shifting rays and, quite often, ephemeral hanging draperies which seem to sway. They can appear in varying shades of red, yellow, green, blue and purple, an ephemeral light show that can be captured to make wonderful photography.
This natural phenomena has always held a great fascination and ancient folklore retained by indigenous groups suggest that the polar lights may been much more powerful in the past. As early as the mid 18th century, eminent scientists realised that the auroras were an electromagnetic phenomena, but it took over two hundred years before this became accepted in the wider scientific community. In 1740, Anders Celsius, the inventor of the centigrade scale named after him, repeatedly noticed that a big compass needle on his desk changed its orientation every time an aurora appeared in the sky above Uppsala, Sweden.
The Norwegian scientist Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), devoted a great portion of his life to an intensive investigation of the enigmatic aurora borealis.
He reasoned that electrons could be ejected by the Sun toward Earth and these electrons could be captured by Earth's magnetic field, that would focus them at the Earth's poles. He made the perfectly reasonable suggestion that these electrons might flow through the upper atmosphere and glow like electrical discharges seen in laboratory plasma experiments. Of course, it took decades until the early 1960s, when Russian and American space probes were blasted with a stream of electric particles flowing from the Sun, for him to be proven right. As Lucy Jago, who wrote a biography of Birkeland called "The Northern Lights"
noted, "rejection of his theories probably slowed the advance of geomagnetic and auroral physics for nearly half a century."
Please note, the Electric Universe is still being shunned by the astronomical community but amongst the wider community it is beign widely embraced due to successful predictions by Electric Universe proponents and overwhelming evidence.
It is clear that the electrical conditions in our solar system have changed and are becoming more extreme. Thus geomagnetic storms and auroras are just one obvious way that our planet interacts with the wider electromagnetic environment of our solar system and even our galaxy.
Yet, scientists tell us that earthquakes and hurricanes are also influenced by electric currents that connect the magnetosphere with the ionosphere. Moreover, in recent years, a host of new electrical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere is giving scientists some grave concerns.
Auroras rarely reach below 60 kilometers, and can range up to 1000 kilometers. Frequently, when viewed from space, a complete aurora will appear as a circle around one of the Earth's magnetic poles. This digitally-enhanced photograph shows an aurora borealis above the frozen landscape of Bear Lake, Alaska For a small selection see the New Scientists gallery Auroras: The greatest light show on Earth
or a huge selection at Spaceweather.com aurora gallery
. Credit: GSFC / MSFC / NASA.
Auroras Over Both Earth Poles
Credit: Polar VIS, JPL, NASA
Auroras in the north and south can be nearly mirror images of each other. This was confirmed in October 2001 by detailed images from NASA's orbiting Polar spacecraft. Click the image to find a time-lapse movie showing the simultaneous changes in the aurora borealis, at the top, and the aurora australis, at the bottom.
An Auroral Storm
Credit: Polar VIS, JPL, NASA
Oct 22, 1999: At 9:00 a.m. MDT (1500 UT), NOAA's Space Environment Center reported that a strong geomagnetic storm was in progress. The storm is possibly the result of a shock observed in the solar wind on Oct 21 at 01:38UT (Oct 20 at 07:38 p.m. MDT), originating from a mass ejection on the Sun Oct 18. The shock front struck Earth's magnetosphere around 0240 UT on October 21. "This storm is notable, at least for us Americans, because it's producing aurora over the contiguous 48 states," said NASA/Marshall's Dr. Jim Spann a co-investigator on Polar's UVI instrument. For more details click the above image.
The Masters of the Electric Universe
Meet the leaders of the Electric Universe theory.